- Black Death was probably the most devestating natual disaster in European history, leaving tens of millions of people dead across the continent (p. 308). Looking beyond the the obvious death tolls however, what were the greatest consequences of the Black Death? In your answer, discuss some of the social and economic problems that arose because of the plague.
- What major problems did European states face in the fourteenth century, and how are these problems evident in the history of England, France, and the Holy Roman Empire?
- Discuss Italian Renaissance humanism. What does the word humanism mean? Who were the humanists? What were their goals? Did they achieve them? And in the long-run, what effect did their thoughts have on the Catholic church and religion in general?
“A Woman’s Defense of Learning”: How does Laura Cereta explain her intellectual interests and accomplishments? Why do you think Renaissance women were rarely taken seriously in their quest for educational opportunities and recognition for their intellectual talents? Were any of those factors unique to the Renaissance era? (READ this passage below for this question)